Reflexiones sobre ciencia, economía, ecología, política y comportamiento humano
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Pedro J. Hernández
In scene 19, Mr Gore says: "Coral reefs all over the world because of global warming and other factors are bleaching and they end up like this. All the fish species that depend on the coral reef are also in jeopardy as a result. Overall specie loss is now occurring at a rate 1000 times greater than the natural background rate." The actual scientific view, as recorded in the IPCC report, is that, if the temperature were to rise by 1-3 degrees Centigrade, there would be increased coral bleaching and widespread coral mortality, unless corals could adopt or acclimatise, but that separating the impacts of climate change-related stresses from other stresses, such as over-fishing and polluting, is difficult.
* We call on all societies and governments to immediately and substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Without targeted reductions, the ongoing damage to coral reefs from global warming will soon be irreversible.
* Ocean acidification due to increased atmospheric CO2 is accelerating, and will detrimentally effect the growth and skeletal strength of calcifying species, such as corals. Reducing CO2 emissions is the only way to prevent further damage to coral reefs. Loss of coral also impacts on many other species and reduces reef fisheries.
* Coral reefs are economically, socially and culturally important, and therefore need to be sustained. For example, the Great Barrier Reef contributes .9 billion annually to the Australian economy - billion from the tourism industry, 4 million from recreational activity and 1 million from commercial fishing. This economic activity generates more than 65 000 jobs.
* Climate change, overfishing and pollution continue to cause massive and accelerating declines in abundance of coral reef species and global changes in reef ecosystems. Even remote and well-managed reefs are under threat from climate change.
* Coral bleaching has greatly increased in frequency and magnitude over the past 30 years due to global warming. For coral reefs, climate change is not some potential future threat – it has already caused enormous damage that will increase in coming years. Bleaching due to climate change has already caused widespread damage to the Great Barrier Reef in 1998 and 2002.
* The world has a narrow window of opportunity to save coral reefs from the destruction of extreme climate change. Substantial global reductions of greenhouse gasses must be initiated immediately, not in 10, 20 or 50 years.
* No-fishing reserves (green zones) are an important management tool for preserving targeted stocks of coral reefs, and the ecological functions they provide. To be effective, 25-35% of marine habitats should be no-take (no fishing) for long-term protection. In Australia, many coral reefs have yet to achieve this level of protection (especially in the Northern Territory, Western Australia, south-east Queensland, and the Coral Sea).
* Coral reef megafauna (e.g. dugongs, turtles and sharks) continue to decline rapidly, and are ecologically extinct on most of the world’s reefs. In Australia, current management practices are failing to maintain populations of megafauna, which are already severely depleted. Commercial harvesting and marketing of these species should be banned to allow the recovery of depleted stocks.
* Local action can help to re-build the resilience of reefs, and promote their recovery. It is critically important to prevent the replacement of corals by algal blooms, by reducing runoff from land and by protecting stocks of herbivorous fishes. However, reefs cannot be “climate-proofed” except via reduced emissions of greenhouse gasses.
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